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姓名:乔治·惠普尔
生日:1878年8月28日 职业:医生
主要成就: 代表作品:
简介:George Hoyt Whipple (1878年8月28日—1976年2月1日) 美国医生。1878年8月28日生于新罕布什尔州阿希兰;1976年2月1日卒于纽约州罗彻斯特。惠普尔1900年毕业于耶鲁大学,1905年得到约翰斯·霍普金斯大学医学学位。他先到巴拿马运河区待了一段时间,又在约翰斯·霍普金斯大学深造并教学几年之后,于1914年到加利福尼亚大学任医学教授。1921年他到罗彻斯特大学工作,创建了罗彻斯特大学医学院,就任第一任院长,直到1953年。

研究方向及荣誉

他的主要研究兴趣是胆色素,这与普莱格尔及维兰德是一样的,不过他对这问题采取了第三种方向。他想,既然胆色素是血色素在体内形成的,就应当从它的形成着手,找出人体操纵血色素的方法。因此,他在1917年开始一系列的实验,他给狗放血造成贫血,然后注意观察新的血红细胞是是如何形成的,他给狗饲以各种饮食,观察对血红细胞的形成有什么效用,发现肝是其中最为有效的一种食物。他这项工作为乔治·理查兹·迈诺特George Richards Minot(1885—1950)及墨菲(William Parry Murphy,1892—1987)成功地治疗恶性贫血开辟了道路,因而他与此二人共同获得1934年的诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。
罗切斯特大学作为美国最佳大学之一,在该校工作或学习过的著名学者中乔治·惠普尔这位医学和牙科学院的创始人兼院长因发现贫血病的肝脏疗法,于1934年同美国的乔治·迈诺特、威廉·P·墨菲共同获诺贝尔生理学医学奖。
学术经历
乔治·惠普尔先后就读两在大名校:分别是耶鲁大学、约翰斯·霍普金斯大学,并就职于加利福尼亚大学、罗切斯特大学,还创建了罗彻斯特大学医学院,任院长。
英文介绍
George Hoyt Whipple was born on August 28, 1878, in Ashland, New Hampshire, U.S.A., the son of Dr. Ashley Cooper Whipple and his wife Frances Hoyt. His paternal grandfather and his father, both physicians, were born and bred in New Hampshire.
Whipple was educated at Andover Academy and then went to Yale University, where he took his A.B.degree in 1900. Subsequently he went to Johns Hopkins University, where he took his M.D. degree in 1905.
In 1905 he was appointed Assistant in Pathology at the Johns Hopkins Medical School and, although he spent a year as pathologist to the Ancon Hospital, Panama, he remained at Johns Hopkins University until 1914, being successively Assistant, Instructor, Associate and Associate Professor in Pathology.
In 1914 he was appointed Professor of Research Medicine at the University of California Medical School, and Director of the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research at that University, being Dean of the Medical School during the years 1920 and 1921. In 1921 he was appointed Professor of Pathology and Dean of the School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Rochester.
Whipple's main researches were concerned with anaemia and the physiology and pathology of the liver. For a year he worked under General William Gorgas and Dr. S. T. Darling on anaemia caused by parasitic infections and especially on the lesions found in the intestinal tract in people suffering from these infections. He also studied the histology of the tissues in patients suffering from blackwater fever.
When he went to Johns Hopkins University as an assistant in the Department of Pathology, Whipple worked under William H. Welch on pigments related to liver necrosis caused by chloroform anaesthesia, his aim being to gather information about repair and regeneration of the liver cells. This problem was studied in the dog, and Whipple found that the liver cells had an almost limitless power of regeneration. He then became interested in jaundice, which is always associated with chloroform poisoning and injury to the liver. He studied the route by which the bile pigments pass into the blood and thus produce jaundice of various parts of the body and he found that the lympathic system was of little importance in transporting them. He then studied, by means of bile fistulas and other means, the bile pigments and their production outside the liver, and in this work he collaborated with C. W. Hooper.
After his appointment at the Hooper Foundation, Whipple continued his work with bile fistulas, and soon found that a better understanding of the production of haemoglobin was needed if the metabolism of bile pigments was to be understood. In collaboration with C. W. Hooper and Mrs. Robscheit-Robbins, he did experiments on short-term anaemia in dogs due to loss of blood, and further work was done on this subject and on diets consisting of liver in relation to the regeneration of blood. In Rochester, however, he decided to use anaemias due to blood loss which were uniformly sustained and were long maintained, and to study the effects on these of various factors in diets added to the rations. This work showed that the most effective addition to the diets was raw liver itself. For this work on the therapeutic value of liver in the treatment of pernicious anaemia he was awarded, together with George R. Minot and William P. Murphy, the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1934.
Whipple has, in addition to the researches just described, worked on tuberculosis, pancreatitis, chloroform poisoning in animals, the metabolism of pigments and iron, the constituents of the bile, and the regeneration of plasma protein, and he has studied protein metabolism by means of lysine labelled with 14C, and also vitamin B12 labelled with 60Co, and its distribution and functions in the body. He has also made studies of the stroma of red blood cells.
Among the many honours and distinctions he received are honorary doctorates of several American Universities as well as of the Universities of Athens and Glasgow; the Popular Science Monthly Gold Medal and Annual Award in 1930 (with Dr. Minot), and the William Wood Gerhard Gold Medal of the Pathological Society of Philadelphia, in 1934.
He is a Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation. He is also a Corresponding Member of the Association of Physicians in Vienna and of the Royal Society of Physicians in Budapest, and of the European Society of Haematology, and a Foreign Corresponding Member of the British Medical Association. He is an Honorary Member of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the American Philosophical Society and the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine. He was, from 1936-1953, a member of the Board of Scientific Directors of the Rockefeller Institute, a member of the Board of Trustees of this Foundation from 1939-1953, Vice-Chairman of its Board of Trustees from 1953-1960, and in 1960 he was appointed Trustee Emeritus.
In 1914 Whipple married Katherine Ball Waring of Charleston, South Carolina. He has one son George Hoyt (b. 1917) and one daughter Barbara (b. 1921), and seven grandchildren.
From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1922-1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965
This autobiography/biography was first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.
George H. Whipple died on February 1, 1976.
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